Çin’den Çok Tehlikeli Bir Antibiyotik Dünyayı Dolaşıyor

Colistin, E. coli veya salmonella gibi gram-negatif bakterilere karşı kullanılan bir antibiyotik. 1949’da keşfedildi ve 1980’lere kadar bakterilere karşı birincil bir savunma görevi gördü.

Kolistinin potansiyel olarak ciddi yan etkilere sahip olduğu ve böbrek toksisitesine yol açtığı bulundu. Bununla birlikte, 1990’larda uyuşturucuya dirençli bakteriyel suşlar ortaya çıkmaya başladığında, colistin dirençle karşı karşıya olan ilaçların bir yedeği olarak kullanılmaya devam etti.

Çok dirençli bakteriyel suşların neden olduğu enfeksiyonları tedavi edebilecek olması nedeniyle, kolistinin antibiyotiklerin geleceği için önemli bir kaynak olacağı düşünülmüştü. Yan etkilere rağmen, eğer diğerleri başarısız olursa, colistin’in son çare olarak kullanıldı.

2011 yılının Nisan ayında, mrc-1, Çin’de bir domuzdan izole edildiğinde ilk kez E. coli’de görüldü. Kasım 2015’te  araştırmacılar, dünya genelinde mrc-1 genlerinin ortaya çıkışını görmeye başladılar.

Aralık 2015’te, gen İngiltere’deki çiftliklerden ve insan örneklerinden izole edildi. İskoçya’da Çin’de ortaya çıktıktan bir yıl sonra bu geni olan bir kişi bulundu.

Çin’de mrc-1’in ilk bulgularından altı aydan kısa bir süre sonra  ABD Savunma Bakanlığı, Pennsylvania’da bir hastada bu bakterilerdeki geninin bulunduğunu açıkladı.

Ayrıca, Güney Carolina ve bir başkasından Illinois’den bir domuzda geni bulmuşlardı.

Hastalık Kontrol ve Önleme Merkezi, ABD’nin tarım ve sağlık sistemleri için sorun haline gelmeden önce hastalığın daha fazla yayılmasını önlemek için çok çaba harcadı.

Çin’de araştırmacılar, genin çiğ et örneklerinin% 15’inde ve 2011-2014 yılları arasında hayvansal gıdaların% 21’inde olduğunu buldu.

Yayılmaya devam ederken, birçok ülke geni anlamak ve yayılmasını önlemeye çalışıyor. Bazı yerler, daha fazla direnç gelişimini en aza indirgemek için kolistin kullanımının yasaklanmasını bile istiyorlar.

Kolistin dirençli genin altı kıtada tüm dünyada hastanelerde bulunduğu belirtiliyor.

Genin önceki analizi,  hayvanlarda aşırı kolistin kullanımı nedeniyle kökenini Çin’de domuz çiftlikleri olarak tahmin ediliyor.

Araştırmacılar, genin kapsamını daha iyi anlamak ve doğrulamak için yeni araştırmalar yaptılar.Elde edilen sonuçlardan birine göre genin 2005 yılında yayılmaya başladığını gösterdi.

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