Kışın Nasıl Depresyondan Kurtulursunuz?

Karanlık ve soğuk kış günlerinde pek çok insan kendini yorgun ve halsiz hissediyor. Uzmanlar, kışın düşen enerjimizi şarj edebilmek için basit ama etkili bir yol öneriyor: Kendinizi dışarı atın!

Kuzey Avrupalıların yüzde 30’u geçici bir duygudurum bozukluğu yaşıyor. Halk arasında “kış depresyonu” olarak bilinen ağır duygudurum bozukluğu, psikologlar tarafından “mevsimsel afektif bozukluk” olarak adlandırıyor. Bu tanımlamanın İngilizce kısaltması olan “SAD” diye de ifade edilen rahatsızlık, genelde sonbaharın son bölümleri ya da kış aylarında ortaya çıkıyor. Ortalama 90 gün devam eden SAD semptomları, günlerin uzaması ve havaların ısınmasıyla birlikte kaybolmaya başlıyor.

Ağır kış depresyonu vakalarında hastaların olağan günlük yaşantıları, tıpkı genel depresyon hastalıklarında olduğu gibi büyük oranda kısıtlanıyor. Ancak kış depresyonundaki en önemli fark, hastalık etkilerinin tersine bir seyir göstermesi: Genel depresyonda hastalar uykusuzluk ve iştahsızlıktan şikayet ederken, kış depresyonuna giren kişilerde ise aşırı uyku ihtiyacı, nedeni açıklanamayan bir hüzun durumu ve hızlı kilo almaya neden olan tatlı ve karbonhidrat içerikli besinlere karşı duyulan aşırı bir açlık söz konusu oluyor. İsteksizlik, tutarsızlık, sinirlilik, halsizlik, kendini bırakma ve çevresindeki insanlarla iletişimi kesme de kış depresyonuna girenlerin gösterdiği diğer tipik belirtiler.

Kış bunalımı ve kış depresyonu arasındaki fark nedir?

Her ne kadar bazı belirtileri kış depresyonuna benzese de kış bunalımı çok daha yüzeysel ve gündelik hayatı çok fazla etkilemiyor. Gerçi kış bunalımında da uykuya düşkünlük artıyor. Ancak hüzün ve halisizlikten ziyade karamsarlık ve bıkkınlık durumu ortaya çıkıyor. Kış aylarındaki duygudurm bozukluğunun büyük bir bölümü kış bunalımı kategorisinde değerlendiriliyor. Ağır kış depresyonuna girenlerin oranı ise ülkelere göre yüzde 2 ile 8 arasında değişiklik gösteriyor.

Winter in Deutschland (picture-alliance/dpa)
Kış depresyonunun nedenleri nelerdir?

Kış depresyonun ana nedeni olarak, kış aylarında kuzey yarımkürede hâkim olan güneş ve ışık yetersizliği gösteriliyor. Güneş ışınlarının göze temas etmesiyle beyne bir sinyal yollanıyor. Böylece uyku hormonu Melatonin seviyesini düşüren ve yerine Serotonin hormonu salgılanmasını harekete geçiren sistem devreye giriyor. “Mutluluk hormonu” olarak da bilinen Serotonin, aynı zamanda canlılık ve zindelik hissi veren bir nörotransmitter. Nörotrasmitter, nöronlar (sinir hücreleri) arasında veya bir nöron ile başka bir tür hücre arasında iletişimi sağlayan kimyasala verilen ad. Eksikliğinde depresif, yorgun, sıkılgan bir ruh hali görülüyor. Güneş ışınlarının az olduğu kış aylarında bu insanlarda hormonal denge bozuluyor. Vücut, uyuku hormonu düzeyini yeteri kadar azaltamıyor. Bu da yorgunluk, isteksizlik ve halsizliğe neden oluyor. Kişinin ışğa duyarlılık derecesine göre de bu semptomların yoğunluğu, kişiden kişiye değişkenlik gösteriyor.

Kadınlar kış depresyonuna neden daha çok giriyor?

Kış depresyonundan muzdarip olanların yüzde 80’e yakınını kadınlar, özellikle de genç kadınlar oluşturuyor. Bilim insanları, bunu farklı nedenlere bağlıyor. Örneğin evrim biyologları, bu durumun Buzul Çağı’nın günümüze uzanan bir kalıntısı olduğunu düşünüyor. Bu teze göre hamilelik, doğum ve çocuk yetiştirme gibi nedenlerden dolayı kadınlar oldukça yoruluyor ve yıpranıyordu. Bu nedenle kış aylarında daha fazla uyumak ve vücutta bol miktarda yağ depolamak, enerji verimliliği açısından akıllıca bir yöntemdi. Bir nevi “enerji tasarrufu modu” olan bu dinlenme şekli, günümüzde ise tam tersine, verimliliği azaltan bir etken olarak görülüyor. Dolayısıyla uygulanması da pek mümkün olmuyor.

Bir başka neden olarak ise dişilik hormonu Östrojen ile mutluluk hormonu Serotonin arasındaki etkileşim gösteriliyor. Ergenlik dönemi başta olmak üzere kadınlarda dönemsel olarak dalgalanan Östrojen seviyesi, Serotonin üretimini olumsuz etkileyebiliyor. Bu ise kış bunalımı ya da kış depresyonunu tetikliyor.

Kayna: DW

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