Moğolların Büyük Sırrı Ortaya Çıktı, Neden Avrupaya Girmediler

hhhMoğol Ordusu’nun 13. Yüzyıl’ın ortalarında Doğu Avrupa’yı istila etmekten neden vazgeçip Rusya’ya geri döndüğüne dair yeni bulgular ortaya çıktı.

1242’de adeta Macaristan’ın kapısından dönen Moğollar’ın, atlarına yeterince yiyecek bulamadıkları için geri dönmeye karar verdiği tahmin ediliyor.

Ulf Büntgen ve Nicola Di Cosmo isimli iki araştırmacı, Nature dergisinde yayımladıkları araştırmada, Macaristan’daki ağaçların gövdelerindeki halkaları inceleyerek, 1242 kışına dair bilgi edindi.

Büntgen ve Di Cosmo, Moğol Ordusu’nun temel gücü olan atların Asya ve Rusya’da steplerde yetişen besleyici otlarla yol boyunca hayatta kaldığını anlatıyor.

Düzenli iklim koşulları sayesinde ordunun uzun yolculuğu boyunca binek hayvanları yeterli beslenip güçlerini korudu.

Fakat tarihi bazı belgeler ve ağaç halkalarından edinilen bilgiye göre 1242 yılı kış mevsimi bilhassa zor geçti.

Kışın geniş alanda etkili olan don ve buzlanma toprağı örttü, eriyen buzlar nedeniyle ilkbaharda düzlükleri sel bastı.

Moğol Ordusu’nun kışladığı Macaristan düzlükleri de ilkbaharda sel sularıyla örtülünce otlar yeterince büyümedi.

Toprağın çamur ve gölcüklerle kaplanması da atların ilerlemesini güçleştirdi.

Araştırmacılar Cengiz Han’ın torunu Güyük Han’ın bu koşullarda daha fazla ilerlemeye değmeyeceğine karar verip geri döndüğünü düşünüyor.

Tarihçiler yüzlerce yıldır Moğollar’ın ani geri dönüşüne dair tezler üretti.

Orta Asya ve Rusya’da girdikleri tüm savaşları kazanan ve önlerine çıkan her orduyu dize getiren Moğollar’ın, Avrupa’nın kapısından aniden dönmelerine bazı tarihçiler siyasi bir karar deyip geçerken bazıları da Avrupalı orduların savunma taktiklerinin üstünlüğünü işaret etti.

Buna karşın dönemin yazılı kaynakları ve belge niteliğinde kanıtlar oldukça sınırlı.

Moğollar’ın efsane imparatoru Cengiz Han, 1227 yılında seferde öldü.

Oğlu Ögeday ve ardından torunu Güyük Han seferleri devam ettirdi.

Cengiz Han öldüğünde geride bıraktığı imparatorluk, sınırları kesintisiz devam eden, dünya topraklarının beşte birine tekabül eden, en geniş devletti. (Kaynak: Nature, Al Jazeera Rudaw)

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