Brain Cell Types Help to Develop Computer
By understanding the structure and function of the cranial nerve circuit, it can be helpful to develop a neural network computer or humanoid robot.
Brain development and cerebral cortical function research are also key to the treatment of brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and autism.
For these studies, it is necessary to grasp the exact details of brain cells, but it remains an unfinished task.
In recent years, the Allen Institute brain scientists have been working on a list of expanded cells of the cerebral cortex and taking a step closer to understanding the whole brain cell type.
In a paper that covered the cover of Nature on Oct. 31, the team found that there were 133 different cell types based on gene expression in the cerebral cortex, which recognizes the outermost object types’.
This sort of work, which took 15 years at the Alan Labs, has found many rare types of brain cells that are rarely found, and is the starting point for discovering new features of two rare neurons. The researchers collected cell-specific information from various parts of the rat cerebral cortex involved in visual and motor activity.
Scientists do not yet understand how the mammalian brain works. I also do not know completely what the different types of brain cells are made of.
What neuroscientists are confronted with is similar to recreating delicious and complex foods without any food ingredients or recipes and without any documentation of many ingredients.
In this study, the team created a list of 133 cell types and found a way to describe the ingredients by analyzing the gene in about 24,000 of 100 million rat brain cells.
The researchers found that the other regions of the cerebral cortex are likely to follow a similar organizational rule, as they “almost completely analyze the visual and motor domains by capturing tens of thousands of genes from numerous cells.”
“This is the most comprehensive and in-depth analysis of cortical studies done in all species,” said Dr. Hongkui Zeng, senior author of the paper and director of structural science at the Alan Institute’s Brain Science Department. You can say that you understand the distribution rules in the “Parts” list. ”
“With all this data in the future, we can learn new principles about how the brain is organized and ultimately how it works,” he added.
In this accompanying Nature paper by researchers at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Zenelia campus, neuroscientists have used two additional types of neurons related to exercise, using gene-based classification and additional information about the shape of neurons.
Based on this, the researchers measured the activity of these different neurons in moving mice. As a result, we have found that one kind triggers an exercise plan, and the other kind triggers an exercise itself.
Dr. Karel Svoboda, a coauthor of this cell type research paper and Dr. Michael Economo, who conducted a study of motor neurons, said, “Gene expression is a very efficient way to identify cell types, Alan Research’s work stands at its core. ”
“Athletic cerebral cortex research is the first dog in cell typing, which includes gene expression information, structural information, and neuronal activity measurements to describe the function of specific brain cell types,” he explained.