ABD Kongresi’nde Türkiye Tartışıldı

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abdABD Kongresi’nde düzenlenen Türkiye konulu oturumda, Türkiye’de özellikle demokrasi ve özgürlüklerin gidişatı, Kürtler’le ilişkiler ele alındı ve Cumhurbaşkanı Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’ın bazı politikalarına sert eleştiriler yöneltildi.

Temsilciler Meclisi Dışişleri Komisyonu’na bağlı Avrupa, Avrasya ve Yükselen Tehditler Alt Komisyonu’nda düzenlenen oturuma, dünyada insan hakları ve özgürlüklerin takibini yapan Washington merkezli sivil toplum kuruluşu Freedom House’dan Nate Schenkkan, Ortadoğu Enstitüsü Türkiye Araştırmaları Merkezi Direktörü Gönül Tol ve Turkish Heritage Organization adlı düşünce kuruluşunun Başkan Yardımcısı Ali Çınar konuşmacı olarak davet edildi.

Alt komisyonun başkanı Cumhuriyetçi milletvekili Dana Rohrabacher, oturumun açılış konuşmasında, ”Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan’ın Türk tarzı güçlü bir başkanlık sistemi yaratmak için yeni bir anayasa geçirmek suretiyle koltuğunu güçlendirmeye yönelik çabaları Türk demokrasisine zarar veriyor” diye konuştu.

“Türkiye’nin yanlış yönde olduğunu ve iktidarın kötüye kullanıldığını”, Erdoğan’ın hem yurtiçi hem yurtdışındaki bazı politikalarının “alarm zilleri”nin çalmasına neden olduğunu belirten Rohrabacher, “İktidarın kötüye kullanımına işaret eden rahatsız edici haberlere dikkat gösterilmeli” ifadesini kullandı.Türkiye’de demokrasinin seyrinin, Erdoğan’ın “zaten uzun süredir sahip olduğu gücü daha da genişletme çabasından” etkilendiğini kaydeden Rohrabacher, Güneydoğu’da yürütülen operasyonlara da değinerek, “Kürtlere karşı son eylemler, askeri adımları temel alan şiddet içerici bir stratejiye işaret ediyor görünüyor. Daha barışçıl bir bölge inşa etmemizin, ülkenize barış getirmenin yolu bu değil” dedi.

Türkiye’de gazetecilere yönelik baskılara dair haberlere de konuşmasında atıfta bulunan Rohrabacher, AK Parti’nin Haziran ayındaki seçimlerde kaybettiği meclis çoğunluğunu Kasım’da tekrar aldığını hatırlatarak, iktidar partisinin yenilenen şiddet üzerine milliyetçilere hitap eden politikalarının bunda rol oynamış olabileceğini savundu.‘Demokrasinin gidişatından kaygılıyız’

Komisyonun kıdemli Demokrat üyesi Gregory Meeks de, HDP’nin son seçimlerde TBMM’ye girmesinin olumlu bir gelişme olduğunu, ancak “Kürtlerin mesajlarının iktidar partisi tarafından bastırıldığı” yönünde kaygılar bulunduğunu dile getirdi.

Meeks, “Türkiye’nin Kürt sorununa nasıl barışçıl siyasi bir çözüm bulacağı noktasında derin endişelerim var” ifadesini kullandı.Bunun yanında Meeks, Türkiye’nin 2 milyonu aşkın Suriyeli sığınmacıya ev sahipliği yaparak bir anlamda “dünyanın yükünü taşıdığını ve ağır bir insani krizle mücadele ettiğini”, bu açıdan takdir edilmesi gerektiğini söyledi.

Kongre üyeleri olarak Türkiye’de demokrasinin gidişatından da kaygı duyduklarını belirten Meeks, “Akademik özgürlükleri, basın özgürlüklerini ve duyulması ne kadar hoşa gitmeyecek olursa olsun hükümete yönelik eleştiride bulunma hakkını tam destekliyoruz. İnsanlar bu endişeleri, fikirlerini kötü muamele ya da yargılanma korkusu duymadan dile getirme hakkına sahip olmalı. Demokratik toplumlar bu şekilde işler. Amerika’da çok iyi bildiğimiz gibi bu seslerin bastırılması, demokrasinin aşınmasına ve nihayetinde şiddete yol açar” diye konuştu.

Meeks, Güneydoğu’da güvenlik güçlerince yürütülen operasyonlarda da güvenlik ve özgürlükler arasındaki hassas dengenin gözetilmesi gerektiği uyarısında bulundu.‘Anti-demokratik taktikler hepimizi alarma geçirmeli’

Demokrat Parti milletvekili David Cicciline de, Türkiye’de Kürtlere, medya ve sivil topluma karşı geniş anlamda baskılar uygulandığını savundu.

Cicciline, “Türkiye’nin Kürtlere ve diğer azınlıklara, Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan’ı eleştirenlere karşı anti-demokratik taktikler uygulamasından hepimiz alarma geçmeliyiz” ifadesini kullandı.

David Cicciline, ABD’nin IŞİD’e karşı mücadele, sığınmacıların kabulü gibi konularda Türkiye’yi desteklemeye devam etmesi, ancak demokrasi ve insan hakları konularını da bir kenara atmaması gerektiğini belirtti.

Demokrat milletvekili Albio Sires, Türkiye’de demokrasinin gidişatını “bir ileri iki geri” olarak nitelerken, diğer bir Demokrat milletvekili Tulsi Gabbard da, Türkiye’nin yabancı militan akışını önlemede, Suriye sınırının güvenliğini yeteri kadar sağlayamadığını öne sürdü.

Temsilciler Meclisi’ndeki Türkiye Dostluk Grubu eş başkanlarından Demokrat Gerry Connolly de, çok tehlikeli bir coğrafyada yer aldığını belirttiği Türkiye’nin NATO’nun kuruluşundan bu yana İttifak’ın güvenilir bir üyesi, Ortadoğu’da İsrail-Filistin meselesinde arabulucu olduğunu, uluslararası toplumdan neredeyse hiç yardım almadan 2 milyonu aşkın Suriyeli sığınmacıyı kabul ettiğini hatırlattı.

Kıbrıs’ta da Türkiyesiz bir çözüm olamayacağına işaret eden Connolly, ABD’nin Türkiye’deki askeri üsse sahip olduğuna da dikkati çekerken, “Türkiye ile ilişkilerimiz kritik bir ilişki, bunu elimizin tersiyle itmeyelim” dedi.‘Demokratik olmadıkça istikrar olmaz’

Oturuma davet edilen konuşmacılardan Freedom House yetkilisi Nate Schenkkan, Türkiye’de demokrasi ve ifade özgürlüklerinin durumunun geçen yıldan bu yana bile daha “vahim” hale geldiği görüşünü dile getirdi.

Schenkkan, Türkiye’de medya, akademi dünyası, sivil toplum ve Kürtlere karşı baskılar uygulandığını savunurken, barış sürecinin çöktüğünü, PKK ile çatışma ortamının sivil zayiatlara neden olduğu gibi, Türkiye’deki Kürtlerle son 10 yılda sağlanan ilerlemeleri de yok ettiğini söyledi. Schenkkan, Türkiye’nin güneydoğusunun bazı kesimlerinin Suriye’deki savaş bölgelerine benzediğini söyledi.

Ortadoğu Enstitüsü Türkiye Araştırmaları Merkezi Direktörü Tol da, ifade özgürlüğünün demokrasinin en temel sütunlarından birini oluşturduğunu ve Türkiye’de temel hak ve özgürlüklerde eksiklikler yaşandığını belirterek, “Türkiye, demokratik olmadıkça istikrarlı bir ülke olamaz” ifadesini kullandı.Türkiye açısından 2015’in zorlu bir yıl olduğunu ve en kaygı verici olanın ise Türkiye ile PKK arasındaki çatışmalar olduğunu kaydeden Tol, Türkiye’nin PYD ile diyaloğa girmeyi reddetmesinin de Suriye’de siyasi çözüm bulmaya yönelik BM öncülüğündeki görüşmeleri zorlaştırdığını savundu.

Tol, “Türkiye Kürt meselesine barışçıl çözüm bulamadıkça Kürtlere saldırmaya devam ederek, IŞİD’e karşı ABD stratejisini daha etkisiz hale getirecek ve siyasi sürece zarar verecek. Buna rağmen, hükümetin ve Kürtlerin çatışmaları dindirme ihtimali bu yıl için zayıf. Dolayısıyla ABD’nin, ateşkes ve müzakere masasına geri dönülmesi için taraflar üzerinde baskısını kullanması gerekli” diye konuştu.

Bunun yanında Tol, ABD’nin PYD’yi Suriye’de Esad rejimine karşı daha net bir tavır takınmaya ikna edebilmesi halinde, Ankara açısından PYD’nin siyasi sürece alınmasına itirazını kaldırmasının nispeten daha kolaylaşabileceği görüşünü dile getirdi.‘PKK da PYD de terör örgütü’

Turkish Heritage Foundation Başkan Yardımcısı Çınar da, IŞİD’in de, PKK ve PYD’nin de Türkiye açısından terör örgütü olarak görüldüğünü vurgularken, Türkiye’nin Kürt vatandaşlarına saygı gösterdiğini, IŞİD’e karşı savaşan diğer Kürt gruplara yardım ettiğini, ancak PYD’nin amacının başka olduğunu, bunların birbirleriyle karıştırılmaması gerektiğini söyledi.

Çınar, Türkiye’nin sınır güvenliğini geliştirmeye ihtiyacı olduğunu kabul ettiğini, ancak yabancı militanların geldiği ülkelerin de Türkiye’ye daha fazla istihbarat sağlaması gerektiğini belirtti.

Türkiye ve ABD’nin IŞİD’e karşı birlikte çalıştığını ve bu işbirliğinin bu yıl daha da artacağını düşündüğünü söyleyen Çınar, BM rakamlarına göre Türkiye’nin şu anda dünyada en fazla sığınmacıyı barındıran ülke olduğunu kaydetti.

Çınar, Türkiye’de gazetecilerin gazetecilik mesleklerinden dolayı hapse atılabileceklerini öngören herhangi bir yasal düzenleme bulunmadığını, mesleki ayrım yapmadan herkesin yasa önünde eşit olduğunu söyleyerek, “Türk hükümetine göre, ‘cezaevindeki gazeteciler’ olarak atıfta bulunulan kişiler, öngörülenin aksine ciddi suçlarla suçlanıyorlar” diye konuştu.

VOA

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