Barbarism And Civilization

During the IV millennium BC. e. in the life of some peoples of the Earth there were deep changes that determined the subsequent history of mankind. After long centuries of primitiveness, the most developed tribes of Eurasia, Africa and America have finally crossed the line separating barbarism from civilization.

What is civilization
Bird with the head of a lioness. Marie. III millennium BC. e.
The word “civilization” comes from the Latin adjective civilis – “civil, state”. Approximately it can be translated as “fencing”, “raising to the level of a citizen.” The term means “ascent to urban culture”, because civilis is associated with the word civitas – “city”, “city-state”. It is precisely this meaning that the word “civilization” was understood in the XVI – XVIII centuries. Then Western thinkers designated the level of culture corresponding to European urban education. Civilization was contrasted with ignorance, savagery. Until now, in everyday life, this meaning of the word is preserved. “Civilization, civilization” is understood as a synonym for “culture”. When they say “civilized man”, they often mean “cultural”, “educated.”

In the XIII century. A new, scientific meaning of the term “civilization” begins to take shape. The “civilized” man of the urban culture of Europe or even Asia is contrasted with primitive “savages.” In the XIX century, the American historian Lewis Henry Morgan (1818 – 1881) included the concept of “civilization” in his own outline of the history of mankind.

Morgan was a supporter of the theory of universal progress, according to which all nations go through the same steps in their development. At the same time, some nations may lag behind, while others may forge ahead. Exploring the life of American Indians and the archaeological material already known in his time, Morgan identified three stages in the history of the world. The basis of periodization, he put exactly the archaeological signs – as the most material and obvious. The first stage, wildness, begins with the history of man and ends with the advent of pottery. The latter, according to Morgan (and this was confirmed by later research), relates to the transition of people from hunting and gathering to farming and herding.

The second stage – barbarism covers the period from the appearance of pottery to the appearance of writing. Morgan himself investigated barbarism on the example of the Indians of the United States and Canada, especially the tribal association of the Iroquois.

The second stage – barbarism covers the period from the appearance of pottery to the appearance of writing. Morgan himself investigated barbarism on the example of the Indians of the United States and Canada, especially the tribal association of the Iroquois.

At the time of Morgan, the presence of writing could be considered a sufficient sign of the emergence of civilization. However, the further development of historical science has shown that the appearance of writing is far from always accompanied by profound cultural and social changes. Moreover, writing does not necessarily occur in the framework of urban culture.

A city can be considered, according to the generally accepted definition, only such a settlement, where residents are mainly engaged in labor outside agriculture. So, over the past century and a half, scientists have become aware of a whole series of written cultures without any signs of urban life. For example, Aborigines from Easter Island in Oceania had a written language, but they didn’t have a semblance of urban settlements. It is hardly possible in the full sense of the word to consider even the largest and fortified settlements of the ancient Germans of the 1st – 5th centuries to be cities. And they already had a letter.

So, it became clear that a single sign for the selection of civilization is not enough. In fact, Morgan did not see civilization outside of urban culture. So the existence of cities, along with the written language, is now the second generally recognized evidence of the presence of civilization among the people.

Nevertheless, neither the city, nor even the written language does not belong to indisputable evidence. The letter went through many stages in its development, and its most primitive forms are sometimes difficult to distinguish from the visual arts. Disputes about whether to consider this or that settlement a city often seethe in science for decades. As a third, quite material and indisputable, sign of the existence of civilization, modern archaeologists have proposed monumental art.

Detail pictograms from the so-called “Cave hands”
Detail of the pictogram from the so-called “Cave of the hands.” Argentina. VIII millennium BC. e.
Indeed, the emergence of monumental architecture and sculpture is a visible sign of change in society and culture. Buildings like the Egyptian pyramids, ancient Chinese palaces, ancient temples were erected with the application of mental and physical forces unthinkable in a primitive society. They did not have a purely applied purpose. For people to live for centuries, there were enough primitive dugouts and huts. A residential palace is much more than what a man really needs. Giant sculptures of gods and heroes perpetuated them for thousands of years. It should be noted that in one form or another monumentality is characteristic of any civilization up to our days. True, today it is often caused by inevitability – for example, the accumulation of the population in large cities makes it necessary to build apartment buildings – “towers”.

Thus, modern science identifies three main features of civilization: writing, cities, monumental art. Scientists approach these signs with varying degrees of rigor. Many believe that a combination of at least two of these signs is enough for recognition of civilization. Thus, the Aboriginal people mentioned above from Easter Island, Rapanuyans, have written language and monumental sculptures of revered ancestors – but there are no cities. The ancient Incas from Peru, who subordinated almost the entire west of South America, had urban settlements, developed monumental construction — but there was no written language. And yet they often speak of the “Incan civilization”, the “civilization of Easter Island”. Other scientists are more strict on the problem. In their opinion, the level of civilization is achieved only by combining all three signs.

The term “civilization” denotes not only a certain stage in the development of humanity and culture, but also individual cultures that have reached this stage. A local civilization is a civilization of any region, nation, country, completely independent, self-sufficient. Historians introduce various divisions of local civilizations: by level of development (agrarian, industrial, etc.), by characteristic features of the economy (for example, trade), by geographical position (river, sea, etc.).

The concept of local civilization plays an important role in the so-called civilizational approach to world history. According to this approach, there is no worldwide historical progress.

Pyramid of Pharaoh Djoser

The pyramid of Pharaoh Djoser. Saqqara Egypt. XXVIII century. BC e.
Separate cultures or civilizations go through different stages in their development independently of each other, according to their own laws. In this case, both the flowering and decay of cultures are natural. The main core of the overwhelming majority of local civilizations, their “over-value”, is made up of religious systems.For  the German historian and philosopher Osvald Spengler (1880-1936). The latter, by the way, defined civilization in its own way. For Spengler, civilization is a culture in decline, when its main forces are concentrated in cities and it begins to decompose. But such a definition of civilization has not taken root in science, even among supporters of Spengler.


  • JeaZeft Reply

    18 February 2019 at 20:17

    Cialis Brevetto levitra actualite Kamagra Generique Suisse Source Of Amoxicillin Kamagra Oral Jelly Results

  • JeaZeft Reply

    10 March 2019 at 15:01

    Vente Kamagra Pharmacie Viagra Cialis Efectos Canadian Meds Without An Rx lowest price for 20 mg of levitra Belgio Prezzo Kamagra Cephalexin Cats Can Amoxicillin Affect Clomid

  • JeaZeft Reply

    27 March 2019 at 16:06

    Viagra 100mg Preis Apotheke Dog Side Effects Of Amoxicillin Best Price Kamagera No Rx generic 5mg cialis best price Priligy Espana Comprar Comprar Cialis Autentica

  • Austol Reply

    29 April 2019 at 22:52

    Best Buy Provera Medication Store Viagra Shipped To Philippines Diflucan Epocrates Online viagra Notas De Propecia

  • gamefly free trial Reply

    03 May 2019 at 15:08

    great issues altogether, you simply won a logo new reader.
    What could you recommend about your submit that you just made a few days in the past?
    Any certain?

  • gamefly free trial Reply

    05 May 2019 at 14:50

    Just desire to say your article is as surprising.
    The clarity for your submit is simply excellent and that
    i could assume you are knowledgeable on this subject.
    Fine together with your permission let me to seize
    your RSS feed to stay up to date with approaching post.
    Thank you 1,000,000 and please carry on the rewarding work.

  • gamefly free trial Reply

    06 May 2019 at 14:34

    Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I’ve truly enjoyed browsing your blog
    posts. After all I will be subscribing to your rss feed and I hope you write again very

  • how to download minecraft Reply

    07 May 2019 at 16:08

    I’m truly enjoying the design and layout of your site.
    It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more pleasant for me to come
    here and visit more often. Did you hire out a developer to create
    your theme? Outstanding work!

  • minecraft free download pc Reply

    09 May 2019 at 03:59

    My spouse and I stumbled over here from a different
    web address and thought I might check things out.
    I like what I see so now i’m following you. Look forward
    to going over your web page yet again.

  • minecraft download Reply

    09 May 2019 at 05:46

    Link exchange is nothing else except it is simply placing the other person’s blog link on your page at proper place
    and other person will also do similar for you.

  • g Reply

    12 May 2019 at 18:35

    Hello there! I could have sworn I’ve been to this web site before but after browsing through
    a few of the posts I realized it’s new to me. Anyways, I’m
    definitely delighted I stumbled upon it and I’ll be book-marking it
    and checking back frequently!

  • sweet water cornhole Reply

    12 May 2019 at 20:33

    … [Trackback]

    […] Read More Info here to that Topic: […]

  • Stevviedia Reply

    13 May 2019 at 10:42

    Probiotics And Amoxicillin Kamagra Info Cialis Viagra Madrid efecto kamagra Indocin No Prescription Kamagra Aus Der Apotheke Free Shipping Pyridium C.O.D. Low Price

  • g Reply

    13 May 2019 at 15:13

    That is really interesting, You’re a very professional blogger.
    I’ve joined your rss feed and stay up for in quest of more of
    your excellent post. Additionally, I’ve shared your
    web site in my social networks

  • g Reply

    13 May 2019 at 21:30

    My spouse and I stumbled over here coming from a
    different page and thought I may as well check things
    out. I like what I see so now i’m following you. Look
    forward to going over your web page for a second time.

  • Austol Reply

    30 May 2019 at 05:03

    Propecia Front Receding Hairline Alli Diet Pills Sale Canada viagra Buy Viagranext Day Delivery Viagra Quebec Canada Kamagra Gel 100 Mg

  • Stevviedia Reply

    02 June 2019 at 03:22

    Prospecto De Kamagra viagra Cachet Baclofene Canadian Pharmacies No Pres

  • Stepgax Reply

    03 June 2019 at 00:28

    Levitra Scaduto Zithromax Aman Untuk Ibu Hamil online cialis How To Buy Antibiotics Online Zithromax Alcohol Side Effects Kamagra 100 Mg Montpellier

  • Stepgax Reply

    11 June 2019 at 11:13

    Propecia Levels Generic Macrobid In Internet Overseas On Line Le Viagra Generique Existe T Il cheap cialis Propecia Levels

  • Austol Reply

    12 June 2019 at 09:44

    Cialis Apotheke Osterreich Cialis Duree Action Cialis Prezzo In Svizzera cialis Acticin Elimite Drugs On Line

  • quest bars cheap Reply

    14 June 2019 at 13:59

    Hi there i am kavin, its my first occasion to commenting anyplace, when i read this post
    i thought i could also make comment due to this brilliant piece of writing.

  • Stevviedia Reply

    15 June 2019 at 22:08

    Zithromax Treatment For Gonorrhea Sildenafil Canadian Pharcharmy Online Buy Neurontin Overnight forum levitra en france Priligy 30mg Side Effects

  • bloxburg money glitch Reply

    17 June 2019 at 09:58

    Ha, here from google, this is what i was looking for.

Leave a Comment