Kolombiya Hükümetine Referandum Şoku FARC ile Barışa Hayır Çıktı

kolombiyaKolombiya hükümeti ile gerilla örgütü FARC arasında imzalanan barış anlaşmasının referandumda kıl payı farkla reddedilmesi sürpriz oldu. Seçim kurulunun açıkladığı resmi rakamlara göre Kolombiyalıların yüzde 50,21’i anlaşma aleyhinde oy kullanırken, FARC’ın Kolombiya’nın siyasi hayatında söz sahibi olmasını da öngören barış anlaşmasına ‘evet’ oyu verenlerin oranı yüzde 49,78’de kaldı. Oylamadan önce yapılan anketler barış anlaşmasının kabul edileceğini göstermekteydi. Halkın seçim ve oylamalarda sandığa gitme alışkanlığı olmadığı Kolombiya’daki referanduma katılma oranı yüzde 37,43 olarak açıklandı. Karayipler’i etkisi altına alan ‘Matthew’ kasırgasının yol açtığı şiddetli fırtına ve yoğun yağışların da katılma oranının düşük kalmasında rol oynadığı belirtiliyor.

 
Anlaşma karşıtları başkent Bogota’da sevinç gösterileri düzenlerken, barış anlaşmasının kabul edilmesinden yana olanlar göz yaşlarına boğuldu. Oylama sonucu aynı zamanda, 50 yıldır devam eden iç savaşın Kolombiyalıları nasıl böldüğünün de göstergesi oldu.

 
Halkın tercihinde bölgelere göre önemli farklar oldu. Başkent Bogota ve ülkenin ekonomik merkezi sayılan Medellin’de çoğunluk barış anlaşmasına karşı çıkarken, Karayip ve Pasifik sahillerinde yaşayan Kolombiyalılar

anlaşma lehinde oy kullandı.İç savaşın kanlı bilançosu
Dört yıl süren görüşmelerin ardından geçen pazartesi günü imzalanan hükümet ile gerilla örgütü arasındaki barış anlaşmasının referandumla ret edilmesinden sonra barış sürecinin nasıl devam edeceği kestirilemiyor. On yıllardır devam eden hükümet ile FARC arasındaki çatışmalarda en az 220 bin kişi ölmüş, milyonlarca Kolombiyalı da yaşadığı bölgeyi terk etmek zorunda kalmıştı.

 
Kolombiya Devlet Başkanı Juan Manuel Santos sonucun açıklanmasından sonra ‘umudunu kesmeyeceğini ve görev süresi dolana kadar barış mücadelesini sürdüreceğini’ söyledi. Santos FARC temsilcileriyle görüşmek üzere Küba’ya yeniden heyet göndereceğini ve barış anlaşmasına karşı çıkanlarla görüşmeye de hazır olduğunu belirtti.

 
FARC: Silaha sarılmayacağız
Gerilla örgütü FARC da referandum sonucunu hayal kırıklığıyla karşıladı. ‘Timoşenko’ lakaplı FARC lideri Rodrigo Londono, şimdilik silahlı mücadeleyi yeniden başlatmak niyetinde olmadıklarını belirtti ve ‘bundan böyle de barışa hazır olduklarını ve ülkenin geleceğinin inşasında silahlar yerine argümanlarını konuşturacaklarını’, söyledi.

 
Halkın ret ettiği barış anlaşmasının Kolombiya Kongresi’nin oyuna sunulmasının gerginliğe yol açmasından endişe ediliyor. Halkoylamasının kendisi için bağlayıcı olduğunu söyleyen Devlet Başkanı Juan Manuel Santos barış arayışını görevinin en önemli konusu ilan etmiş ve bu uğurda yoğun mücadele vermişti. Barış anlaşmasında toprak reformu, FARC’ın seçimlere katılabilmesi, önümüzdeki iki seçim döneminde gerilla örgütüne 10 milletvekilliği verilmesi ve en ağır suçların bile azami 8 yıl hapisle cezalandırılması öngörülmekteydi. Anlaşma karşıtları öncelikle ceza indirimini eleştirmekteydi. Barış anlaşmasının ret edilmesi için kampanya yapan eski devlet başkanı Alvaro Uribe referandum sonucuyla ilgili olarak ılımlı ifadeler kullandı ve partisinin ‘milli barış ittifakını’ desteklemeye hazır olduğunu söyledi.

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