Diarrhea, Diabetes, Autism are Treated With A Microbial Transplant
Bacteria help digest food, train the immune system, do not allow harmful microorganisms to breed. It is with a lack of intestinal microflora that some researchers associate the development of such serious diseases as stroke, diabetes and even autism. Treat all this offer transplant other people’s excrements.
The bacteria that inhabit the intestines (scientifically called microflora or microbiomes) feed on pieces of food that a person cannot digest on his own. In exchange, microbes require the host to consume as much as possible, from their point of view, food, and his immune system does not notice their presence. But, as it turned out, relations with intestinal microorganisms are not limited to this.
In 2016, British and Spanish scientists found that the mood of a person can depend on the composition of microflora. Some intestinal bacteria affect the activity of the TLR2 receptor – an essential element of the innate immune system, not only informing the body of beneficial or pathogenic microbes, but also associated with the production of serotonin, a good mood hormone. Microorganisms are able to include TLR2, resulting in a huge number of protein signaling molecules that cause the neurons of the medulla oblongata to increase serotonin production. And the higher the level of this hormone, the better the mood.
A year later, American microbiologists discovered that it was not only a matter of receptors. The intestinal bacteria control the activity of the host genes. Thus, in mice grown under sterile conditions without intestinalDiarrhea, Diabetes Autism are Treated With A Microbialbacteria, and in normal rodents, a number of genes expressed (i.e., produced protein) differently. It means that the diseases corresponding to these genes may actually depend on the intestinal microbiome. And indeed, a little later it was confirmed for stroke, multiple sclerosis and hypertension.
Microbes in the intestines of a person can “manipulate” his mood
Scientists from Britain and Spain have discovered that intestinal microflora microbes control the concentration of serotonin, a “good mood” hormone, and thus can affect a person’s current state of mind.
It was practically at the same time that the German researchers from the Institute of Aging had the idea of feeding the small fish Nothobranchius furzeri with feces of younger relatives. The life expectancy of individuals that gorged on foreign excreta, and with them, and beneficial bacteria, increased by 41 percent.
The fact is that in these fish the composition of the microbiome varies greatly with age, and representatives of Proteobacteria, capable of causing dysbacteriosis, predominate in the intestines of older individuals. Eating the feces of young fish enriched the microflora, improved metabolic processes, and increased life expectancy. Interestingly, the transplantation of the microbiome from the elderly to young individuals had no effect on the health of the latter.
Something similar is observed in mice, in the intestines of which, as they age, the number of proteobacteria increases (Proteobacteriae). Researchers at the University of Colorado suggested that these microorganisms are responsible for the deterioration of blood vessels with age and cardiovascular disease.
Within a month, scientists fed the rodents with a mixture of several broad-spectrum antibiotics, and most of the bacteria that inhabit the intestines died. Then, biologists evaluated the state of the blood vessels and measured the blood levels of inflammatory compounds, free radicals, damaging tissues, and nitrogen compounds that expand blood vessels. Vascular health of age individuals improved significantly, while in young people it practically did not change.
No such stunning effects have yet been observed on humans, although the results of some studies are impressive. So, in 2013, demonstrated the effectiveness of fecal transplantation for the treatment of prolonged diarrhea caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile. Then, out of 16 volunteers who were implanted into the body of other people’s feces – through tubes passing through the nose and mouth directly into the small intestine, 13 completely recovered after the first procedure, two more – after the second.
Now this method is undergoing clinical trials, and it has been greatly simplified: patients take capsules with the biological material of a healthy donor, like ordinary tablets.
There is also evidence that fecal transplantation is effective in treating type 2 diabetes and autism. In a study by Dutch scientists, donor excrement significantly improved the condition of obese and diabetic patients. In the experiment of American specialists in children with autism after transplantation of healthy feces.
Diarrhea, Diabetes, Autism are Treated With A Microbial Transplant - /10
Bacteria help digest food, train the immune system, do not allow harmful microorganisms to breed.