Trump İmzaladı! Türkiye “Golan Tepeleri”nde Nasıl Bir Rol Oynadı

Haber Fotoğraflar: Hülya Karahan

Bulunduğum yer “Golan Tepeleri”, aşağıda ise Ürdün Nehri!

ABD Başkanı Trump, Golan Tepeleri’ndeki “İsrail egemenliğini” tanıyan kararnameyi imzaladı.

Trump Bugün İsrail  Başbakan Netanyahu’nun huzurunda, İsrail’in Golan’daki egemenliğini tanıyan kararnameyi imzaladı.

Golan Tepeleri, batıdaki Ürdün Nehri vadisine bakan engebeli alanın adı .

Hülya Karahan, Ürdün Nehri, Hz.İsa’nın vaftiz edildiği nehir olarak biliniyor

Golan Tepeleri genişçe bir vadiye yayılan sadece bir kaç tepecik, ama İsrail için stratejik önemi çok büyük. Bölge, 1967 yılında  İsrail  işgali altına girene kadar güneybatı Suriye’nin bir parçasıydı ve Aralık 1981’de İsrail, elinde tutulan Golan’ın bir kısmını tek taraflı olarak ekledi. Bölgenin adı, Bashan’daki İncil’deki sığınmacı Golan kentinden geliyor.

Foto: Hülya Karahan, Golan Tepeleri’nin  batısındaki Ürdün Nehri

1894’te Fransız-Yahudi bankacı Baron Edmond de Rothschild, Golan’daki Yahudi yerleşimi için geniş bir arazi satın aldı; ABD, Kanada ve Avrupa’daki diğer gruplar tarafından takip edildi. Yahudi sömürgesine teşebbüs edilmesine karşın, Arap nüfusun düşmanlığı ve yerliler tarafından yerleşmeyi neredeyse yasaklayan Osmanlı toprak yasaları tarafından hüsrana uğradı. I. Dünya Savaşı’ndan sonra Golan, Suriye’nin Fransız yetkisinin bir parçası oldu ve 1941’de bağımsız Suriye’ye geçti. 1948-49 arasındaki Arap-İsrail Savaşı’ndan sonra Suriye, hepsi İsrail’deki Ḥula Vadisi, Celile Denizi ve Ürdün Nehri vadisinin komutasındaki Golan Tepeleri’nin batı tepesini güçlendirdi. Bu bölümlerde birçok İsrailli sivil Suriye topçusu ve keskin nişancı ateşi ile öldürüldü; tarım ve balıkçılık zorlaştırıldı, hatta imkansız hale getirildi.

Foto: Hülya Karahan, Golan Tepeleri

Altı Gün Savaşının son iki gününde (9-10 Haziran 1967), İsrail silahlı kuvvetleri, Mısır ve Ürdün’ü mağlup ettikten sonra dikkatini Suriye’ye çevirdi. İsrail Hava Kuvvetleri kapsamında, mühendis birlikleri, daha sonra zırhlı araçlar ve piyadeler tarafından önden saldırıya uğrayan dik Golan Tepeleri’ne erişim yolları inşa etti. Suriye savunucuları ve Arap sakinlerinin çoğu kaçtı ve Suriye bir ateşkes istedi; Savaş 10 Haziran’da sona ermiştir.  Tepeler İsrail askeri idaresinin altına yerleştirildi ve Golan İsrail’in iletişim ve mali çerçevesine dahil edildi. Çoğunlukla Suriye’nin vatandaşlığını reddetmesi ve alıkoymasına rağmen, Druze Araplarının beş köyü kaldı ve İsrail vatandaşlığı teklif edildi. 1970’lerin sonunda, tepelere yaklaşık 30 Yahudi yerleşimi kurulmuş ve 1981’de İsrail bölgeyi tek taraflı olarak terkett. Bu yerleşim yerlerinin bazılarında Türkiye’den İsrail’e göçe eden Yahudiler yaşıyor ve küçük  dükkanlarda hediyelik eşya satıyor.

Golan Tepelerinde bulunan yerleşim yerlerinde hediyelik eşya satan dükkanlar.

İsrail ile Suriye arasındaki 1973 Ekim Yom Kippur Savaşı’ndan sonra imzalanan bir  anlaşmaya göre, Golan Tepeleri’nde BM Gözlem Gücü olan (UNDOF) tarafından bir tampon bölgesi oluşturdu. UNDOF yetkisi bundan sonra altı ayda bir yenilendi.

Foto: Hülya Karahan, Golan Tepeleri

1991’de Madrid’de yapılan ikili görüşmelerde başlatılan Suriye ve İsrail arasındaki müzakereler, 2000’de Suriye’nin İsrail’in Golan Tepeler’nden  tamamen çekilmesi konusunda  ısrarı kesilinceye kadar aralıklı olarak devam etti. İki ülke arasındaki müzakereler 2008 yılında, aralarında iki ülkenin yakın müttefiki olan Türkiye’nin arabuluculuğu ile yenilendi, ancak görüşmeler İsrail Başbakanı Ehud Olmert’in istifası sonrasında dağıldı. Golan Tepeleri uzun bir aradan sonra tekrar gündeme geldi, bu kez bu önemli konuyu masaya yatıran ABD Başkanı Donald Trump oldu.

Başkanı Trump’ın, Golan Tepeleri’ndeki “İsrail egemenliğini” tanıyan kararnameyi imzalayacağını söyledi söyledi; öylede yaptı.  Bügün İsrail  Başbakan Netanyahu’nun huzurunda, İsrail’in Golan’daki egemenliğini tanıyan kararnameyi imzaladı.

Fotoğraflar, istanbulpost.com.tr’nin kurucusu ve yayın editörü  Hülya Karahan tarafından 2010 yılında çekilmiştir. Karahan, 2010 yılında UNESCO ve İsrail Dişişleri Bakanlığı’nın dünyadan 28 gazeteciye verdiği”medya” bursunu, Türkiye’den kazanan tek gazeteci.

Hülya Karahan, İsrail

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